Thursday, May 21, 2020

Sociology - the Blind Side Essay - 919 Words

The Blind Side In the context of this extraordinary real life story a boy, depending on which society you come from he came from â€Å"The other side of the tracks† or â€Å"The wrong side of the tracks†. The story is about a young black kid who is shuffled between the welfare system, Foster homes that he runs away from and the mother (a drug addict) that has let him down. Big Tony takes him along I think as leverage to get his own son in to a Catholic school because they can both play sports. The coach seems more interested in â€Å"Big Mike† more because of his size and agility. The teachers are very concerned about the lack of education he has had, but they pull together to bring his grades up. The Tuohy family is well off and†¦show more content†¦Birth alone does not Determine his entire life. Social Stratification works here in that as a trait of society is not simply a reflection of Individual differences, privileged position, children born into wealthy families are more likely to enjoy better health, do well in school and have a successful career and also live along life. With Michael and his circumstances and the welcoming of him in the family this enhanced his chances for his entire life, also the social mobility was his change within the social hierarchy. Others in this story are more critical than the school, peers, teachers, coaches and some of Leigh Anne Tuohy’s friends. The racial card rears its ugly head at a football game where racial Slurs are yelled out like â€Å"Fat ass boy† â€Å"Kickin that blue gums ass†, â€Å"Boy†, â€Å"Big black bear† and by her friends he is ranked from their social standards as â€Å"A large black boy† and for his size he will â€Å"eat them out of business† ( They own like a million Taco Bells, according to S.J). Michael is just an even tempered 17 year old that just wants a family and an identity as an individual. We are a â€Å"melting pot† of differences that should work together to create a better future for us all not just for the privileged. The N.A.A.C.P. was a shocking moment they tried pulling the racial Card because of his color and size saying the family had done this to better benefit them as well as the College theyShow MoreRelatedA Sociological Analysis Of The Blind Side1517 Words   |  7 Pages Hayden Allis July 30, 2017 Sociology 101-L66 A Sociological Analysis of The Blind Side The Blind Side is a true story about a boy named Michael Oher who grew up in a very bad neighbor hood that was taken away from his mother at a young age. He was brought to a private school by his friend’s parents. The Tuohy family saw him walking in a storm found out he does not have a place to stay, so they took him in, fed him, then gave him a few new clothes. They then helped him get hisRead MoreLooking For A Peer Review1352 Words   |  6 Pageswas â€Å" An Avenue for Challenging Sexism: Examining the High School Sociology Classroom.† This article was very interesting to me. I went to a small school so we didn t have sociology classes. It is very interesting to see their approach to teaching about gender. In this paper I will be examining the purpose and goal of this article. The way that this study was set up was through six social studies teacher who were teaching a sociology course. Each of these individuals worked in a variations of smallRead MoreFilm Analysis : The Blind Side1471 Words   |  6 PagesThe Blind Side, directed by John Lee Hancock, is a film that focuses on the social injustices experienced by a young African-American man, Michael Oher, during his childhood into young adulthood. Michael, a teenager, is found walking along the street one rainy night by Mrs. Leigh Anne Tuohy, an upper-class white woman (The Blind Side). Mrs. Tuohy grows concerned when she learns that Michael had planned to spend the night in the school gym instead of in a home (The Blind Side). She invites him toRead MoreB Dubois Prejudice And Discrimination1717 Words   |  7 Pagesforemost problem (Horne). He also coined the term double consciousness in sociology. The phrase â€Å"color line† was derived after the civil war where African Americans were segregated from whites. In 1903 Dubois used the phrase in his book â€Å"This meaning is not without interest to you, gentle reader: for the problem of the Twentieth century is the problem of the color line† (England). The reason Dubois studied, sociology was to eliminate segregation, discrimination and inequality (England). He believedRead MorePerspectives Essay examples824 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction to Sociology PSYC-2314-S03 In class we have been discussing the analogy of perspectives. A perspective is a way of seeing, also thought of as a ‘point of view’. This mental view or outlook can both enhance and constrain how we view the world in our own eyes. In the field of psychology and sociology there are many ways to perceive our world in which we live. No one perspective alone can define the world. Each perspective has its own distinctive strengths and blind spots. In classRead MoreRacism And Racism Essay971 Words   |  4 PagesAmerican community. This proposal will further investigate whether the emotional scars of slavery continue to hamper African American progress or if racism is actually the cause. The economic cost of discrimination against African Americans has many sides, which are interconnected with the effects of social discrimination and racism. According to Michael Reigh, a professor of economics and director of the Institute for Research on Labor and Employment (IRLE) at the University of California at BerkeleyRead MoreEssay on Sociology and Social Power827 Words   |  4 PagesPart 2: Introducing Sociology People today blame themselves more and more for every bad thing or troubles they have on personal fault rather then looking towards the social issue (Mills 1959, pg.1). In the article The Promise C. Wright Mills say that the individual can understand his own experience and gauge his own fate only by locating himself within his period, that he can know his own chances in life only by becoming aware of those of all individuals in his circumstances (Mills 1959Read MoreImmigration Perpectives in US1473 Words   |  6 Pagesof economic departments at Freiburg University (1894) and Heidelberg University (1894). During his secondary education, Weber studied languages, history, economics and philosophy, but he is considered to be one of the founder fathers of modern Sociology. After studying many of the world’s political and social issues, Weber desired to explore the origin of the modern West and how it would develop for years to come. (Kalberg, S. (2011) Weber’s theory of a value neutrality was directed toward sociologistRead MoreEssay on Marriage in Romeo and Juliet1448 Words   |  6 Pagesmight become acceptable in the future. In the play, Shakespeare uses a lot of illuminating quotations from the play, illustrating a range of themes such as light and dark, sun/moons/stars and sociology. He uses stars to emphasize the fact they were star crossed lovers. Sociology is the main theme throughout, showing that in those days it really was important, I think he also wanted to prove it was a big flaw to their society. This needed to be changed. Illuminating imagesRead MoreNegative Effects of Obedience Exposed in Milgram Experiment vs â€Å"The Lottery†1052 Words   |  4 Pages‘Seventy-seventh time.’†(Jackson), the lottery has been going on for at least eight decades if not more. Further indications includes the black box, â€Å"The black box grew shabbier each year: by now it was no longer completely black but splintered badly along one side to show the original wood color, and in some places faded or stained.† (Jackson). Estimating from these two quotes, the lottery could have started back in the ancient days where people at the time were far more superstitious and made this ritual as

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Iliad Literary Analysis - 1552 Words

The Iliad: Literary Analysis Throughout The Iliad, an epic poem written by Homer, there were numerous warriors and other characters that could be looked upon as heroes; some of these heroes included Achilles, Ajax, Diomedes, Hector, and Glaucus. All of these individuals were heroes because of their remarkable mental and physical strength: they were courageous and were better fighters in war than other ordinary men. The trade of battle was a way of life to the Greeks back in Homer’s time. Children were raised to become great servicemen to their country, and warriors lived to fight for and defend their nation with pride and valor. The heroic code was a strict morality that dealt with matters relating to honor and integrity in battle.†¦show more content†¦Achilles possessed superhuman strength, he was swift and agile, he was brave, and he was intelligent. Achilles shows his extraordinary fighting skills and his intelligence in Book XXII, when he duels against Hector. Achilles manages to kill Hector â€Å"†¦like a high-flown eagle†¦Ã¢â‚¬  with a perfectly timed stab to â€Å"†¦where the collar-bones hold the neck from the shoulders, the throat, where death of the soul comes most swiftly; in this place brilliant Achilles drove the spear as he came on in fury, and clean through the soft part of the neck the spearpoint was driven† (Book XXII Lines 324-327). His intelligence is shown in that he knew a wound to this spot on Hector’s neck would be fatal, as Hector was wearing Achilles’ old armor that he stole off the body of Patroclus. An ordinary warrior most likely would not have had the skill with the sword to kill Hector, nor the intelligence to know to aim for the exact uncovered spot in Hector’s neck in the first place. Achilles also shows his bravery before this fight by wanting and agreeing to actually fight against Hector, who was the strongest warrior of the Trojans and the one person who was believed to actually have a chance i n combat against Achilles. Additionally, Achilles was the only hero who fought solely for his own heroics, and he was the only one who had a real love for battle and the glory of winning in war. Achilles’ love of war was on par with the love that many other Greeks expressed for their wives andShow MoreRelatedLiterary Analysis Of The Iliad1050 Words   |  5 PagesThe Iliad is an ancient Greek epic that depicts the conflicts of the Trojan War. Throughout the story, many smaller arguments take place between the characters of the epic. Like all stories, The Iliad is filled with literary devices to allow the readers to garner a better understanding of the motivations of each character throughout encounters. Translators have to maintain the nuances of each situation while accounting for an unavoidable skewing from the original passage. In reality, this means thatRead MoreSimilarities between Oral and Literary Traditions663 Words   |  3 PagesWhen thinking of oral traditions and literary traditions they b oth have their own similarities. Oral tradition is information that is passed down from generations by words that is not written down. On the hand literary tradition would be a language that is written and well spoken. It also makes whatever is written down permanent. Both are similar but slightly different from another. Before the literary tradition of written texts, oral tradition passed tales of gods, heroes, and other memorable mortalsRead MoreThe Muse of History by Derek Walcott1751 Words   |  7 Pagesrenewed†(38). Literary tradition can be made to suit or adapt to the voice of the writer. The analysis of Walcott’s Omeros and Rhys Wide Sargasso Sea will show how these writers use the fragments of history as a source of renewal, which engenders an Antillean space and voice which challenges, redefines, and recreates literary canons. Hybrids emerge from fragments of cultural and historical memories fused together, forming something new. Lorna Burns discusses ‘writing back’ to the literary canon in herRead MoreExistentialism And Akhilleus : State Of Affairs1182 Words   |  5 PagesAkhilleus’ State of Affairs in Homer’s Iliad Existentialism is a philosophy that deals with human existence. This philosophy is a complex subject that asks questions about life that include meaning, purpose, choice, morality, ideology, and individuality. When reading other texts one could easily make connections to existential themes within the book’s literary tropes. Occasionally, some books have an overloaded abundance of existential themes. Homer’s Iliad is one of the books that comprise of anRead MoreHomeric Vs. The Iliad1654 Words   |  7 PagesHomeric View of War in the Iliad Being a milestone for all ancient Greek Literature, the Trojan War was discussed and narrated in many different works, most notably Homer’s epic poem the Iliad. Depicting a classical style of mass battle, Homeric warriors were thus treated equally as fighters, but were disregarded in the text in order to illustrate the sheer power of the heroes and leaders. Every warrior was just another piece of the phalanx, which is why the army was so withstanding of attackRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Beowulf 851 Words   |  4 PagesThis essay offers literary analysis of Beowulf, the oldest epic poem that has survived in English literature. It is also widely known as the earliest surviving piece of literatures in vernacular European Literature. The language of this poem is Old English, spoken by Saxon people. This poem depicts a traditional story that is a part of oral Germanic tradition. As per experts, this is work of a single poet and was composed in then England. It has been dete rmined by the scholars that this poem wasRead MoreJohn Keats: The Next Shakespeare Essay829 Words   |  4 PagesKeats can easily be ranked as the top British poet to ever live; or at least in the top five ranking mark. His usage of his poems structures has become famous, just as his poems have become famous. Due to the young death of this famous poet, his literary work was cut short. Ever since he knew he was going to die, when he discovered he had contracted tuberculosis, he had thought that he would never be remembered; so much so that according to the web-site â€Å"Poets Graves† which states the inscriptionRead MoreThe Epic Of The Ramayana887 Words   |  4 PagesAn ancient literary monument that incorporates a rational perspective and approach towards life helps a person resolve infinite conceivable questions, unlock morals and ethics, and approach enlightenment. The Ramayana, a relic with sacred relevance not only to India, but all of humanity, consolidates the innum erable queries by humans, answers them with morality, principals, and philosophical beliefs. This Indian heroic epic poem, comprises of approximately 24,000 verses, is mostly written using theRead More Honor as the Theme in Homer’s The Iliad Essay2033 Words   |  9 Pagesthat are highly esteemed worldwide. These examples of literature would awe the world with how much literary skill they entailed when they were composed and written: attention to details as to formation of characters, the most crafty of plots, the most eloquent speeches and lines, the most astounding of twists of scenes, and most of all, the most universal and meaningful of themes. The theme of any literary work is what makes it great as it should be able to encompass the immense diversity of the worldRead MoreHistorical And Cultural Context Of The Movie The Odyssey 2026 Words   |  9 Pagesagainst a normally insurmountable amount of enemies and triumphing against all odds seem like a modern day movie con cept. In actuality, the first â€Å"western-style† action story was written by an eighth-century B.C. poet named Homer. It was titled the Iliad and it told of many great stories involving Greek gods and horrid monsters. The second of these epic poems was named The Odyssey. The Odyssey had to have been an intensely popular story to have survived for centuries and recognized as a milestone in

Authority Power Politics Free Essays

Authority/Power/Politics Authority What is Authority The word authority derives from the Latin word auctoritas meaning invention, advice, opinion, influence or commands which originate from an auctor, indicating that authority originates from a master, leader or author. Essentially authority is imposed by superiors upon inferiors either by force of arms (structural authority) or by force of argument (sapiential authority). Usually authority has components of both compulsion and persuasion. We will write a custom essay sample on Authority Power Politics or any similar topic only for you Order Now For this reason, as used in Roman law authority is differentiated into potestas (legal or military power) and imperium (persuasive political rank or standing). Weber on Authority Max Weber in his sociological work has identified and distinguished three types of authority. Weber defined authority as the chance of commands being obeyed by a specifiable group of people. Legitimate authority is that which is recognized as legitimate and justified by both the ruler and the ruled. Weber divided legitimate authority into three types: The first type discussed by Weber is Rational-legal authority. It is that form of authority which depends for its legitimacy on formal rules and established laws of the state, which are usually written down and are often very complex. The power of the rational legal authority is mentioned in the constitution. Modern societies depend on legal-rational authority. Government officials are the best example of this form of authority, which is prevalent all over the world. The second type of authority is Traditional authority, which derives from long-established customs, habits and social structures. When power passes from one generation to another, then it is known as traditional authority. The right of hereditary monarchs to rule furnishes an obvious example. The Tudor dynasty in England and the ruling families of Mewar, in Rajasthan (India) are some examples of traditional authority. The third form of authority is Charismatic authority. Here, the charisma of the individual or the leader plays an important role. Charismatic authority is that authority which is derived from â€Å"the gift of grace† or when the leader claims that his authority is derived from a â€Å"higher power† (e. . God or natural law or rights) or â€Å"inspiration†, that is superior to both the validity of traditional and rational-legal authority and followers accept this and are willing to follow this higher or inspired authority, in the place of the authority that they have hitherto been following. Some of the most prominent examples of charismatic authority can be politicians or lead ers, who come from a movie or entertainment background. These people become successful, because they use their grace and charm to get more votes during elections. Examples in this regard can be NT Rama Rao, a matinee idol, who went on to become one of the most powerful Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh. History has witnessed several social movements or revolutions, against a system of traditional or legal-rational authority, which are usually started by Charismatic authorities. What distinguishes authority, from coercion, force and power on the one hand and leadership, persuasion and influence on the other hand, is legitimacy. Superiors feel that they have a right to issue commands; subordinates perceive an obligation to obey. Social scientists agree that authority is but one of several resources available, to incumbents in formal positions. For example, a Head of State is dependent upon a similar nesting of authority. His legitimacy must be acknowledged, not just by citizens, but by those who control other valued resources: his immediate staff, his cabinet, military leaders and in the long run, the administration and political apparatus of the entire society. Power What is Power Power is a measure of an entity’s ability to control the environment around itself, including the behavior of other entities. The term authority is often used for power, perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Power can be seen as evil or unjust, but the exercise of power is accepted as endemic to humans as social beings. Often, the study of power in a society is referred to as politics. Sources of Power Power may be held through: Delegated authority (for example in the democratic process) Social class (material wealth can equal power) Personal or group charisma Ascribed power (acting on perceived or assumed abilities, whether these bear testing or not) Expertise (Ability, Skills) Persuasion (direct, indirect, or subliminal) Knowledge (granted or withheld, shared or kept secret) Celebrity Force (violence, military might, coercion). Moral persuasion (including religion) Operation of group dynamics (such as public relations) Social influence of tradition (compare ascribed power) In relationships; domination/submissiveness Politics What is Politics Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments, but politics has been observed in other group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. It consists of â€Å"social relations involving authority or power† and refers to the regulation of a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy. Politics at Workplace Politics – the other face of the creative, innovative and manipulative and human mind, which always seeks power, recognition and authority. So how can there be no politics at the place where hundreds and thousands of human minds are spending most part of their day and there’s a constant struggle for power and recognition. Yes, double standards, secrecy, camps, demoting others and/or self promotion, in short – politics is all over the workplace. No organisation is and will be completely free from the politics. Office politics refers to the use and manipulation of situations, power and people to secure their position, gain from the situation, let others down or even increase their own power, image and status within the organisation. The results or the benefits can be tangible or intangible, depending upon the situation. Politics at workplace is a game can be played equally well by a single player or teams together, can result in the interest and benefit of the organisation or go against it, can benefit those who don’t play or can throw them out of the organisation. It is a double edged sword which can either create a happy, dynamic and improved environment at the workplace or can destroy it. Politics at workplace is often hard to resist and be away from. It compels and makes you compete. Although a part of all the organisations across the world, the politics at workplace has taken the more advanced and dangerous form in India, where the people staying away from it are being seen as a threat. Office politics has made employees good actors, hiding the facts and even true self from their own colleagues and organisation and being hypocrites for their reasons. Grey side of the issue Every workplace has conflicts, but how the employees and the organisation tackle it goes a long way in ensuring the success of the employees as well as the organisation. Politics at workplace is complex, and can turn the organisation into an ugly and nasty battlefield. Most often, the power is the bone of contention. The powerful employee can take advantage of the situations and manipulate things. The employees can take the things to them at a personal level. This, in turn, can harm their personal and professional lives. Playing on other people’s emotions to make things work for them, people have stooped to such levels where they have put their own morals and conscious aside. But the organisation feels the brunt of the continuous politics at workplace when it starts effecting the overall performance, efficiency and productivity of the organisation. This is mainly due to the considerable amount of time spent on the politics and thinking about the strategies and the moves, rather than the job and the work. Ultimately, this can lead to losses for the organisation and even the loss of jobs for the employees. Workplace Politics: A necessary evil Again, the question arises about the employees who do not become a part to this politics at their workplace. Experts say that giving up to the politics without being a part of it and fighting it, especially when it is unfair, is not advisable either. Sometimes, the politics becomes the necessary evil simply for self defense. As often, the people staying away are taken as a threat and become the victim of the workplace politics and are eliminated. As it has become unavoidable to avoid the politics at today’s workplace, it has become necessary for every employee to: connect to people, try to identify the source of power, bserve and be aware of the happenings around, people’s strengths and weaknesses and their emotional intelligence. Avoiding politics at workplace Although it is practically impossible to make your workplace free from the politics, but the organisation and the employees can follow certain ethics for themselves to make their workplace healthier: Avoid distor ting or manipulating the truth and the facts. Be yourself. Don’t have different faces to suit different people and different situations. Be fair in your dealings. Take decisions based on other’s performance and not on the basis of your relations with them. Be flexible, approachable and accessible to others. Rigidity can isolate you. Communicate – Lack of proper communication is the root cause of most of the problems. Therefore, ensure a timely and open communication system. Hiding information, rumors or distorted information can aggravate the situation and problem. Proper communication will also help to combat the effect of gossip. Have a broader perspective. Don’t work to satisfy your ego every time. Give a fair chance to everyone to put forward their thoughts. Last but not the least; be clear in your conscious. Don’t compromise on your morals and ethics and, don’t hesitate to apologize if you realize that you are wrong. It would be right to conclude that being a part of the interpersonal relations, politics at workplace is prevalent everywhere, and is unavoidable in most cases. But it’s more important to play the game right. Know the rules, stay true to yourself, don’t harm someone personally or his/her career, don’t take grudges home. Try to create a win-win situation for yourself, others and the organisation. Politics at workplace – can be good or bad – depends on how people take it and make it! Don’t confuse authority, power, and politics If you work in an organization, you need a clear understanding of three closely related concepts–authority, power, and politics. Unfortunately, for many employees these concepts often confuse, frustrate, or elicit anxiety or indifference. The traditional concept of organization is built upon the principle that someone has the â€Å"right† to command someone else, whose duty is to obey the command. This â€Å"right† is bestowed by the formal organization, and we call it authority. It is important to note that â€Å"right to command† does not connote the â€Å"capacity to command. Most of us would be making a mistake if we were to equate right and capacity–i. e. , authority and power. This is especially true in a professional environment. We must always be careful to undergird our right to command with the appropriate power, the capability to secure dominance of one’s values or goals, if we w ant to develop and maintain highly effective organizations. Even though it may be socially unacceptable to admit that one aspires to power or worries about power relationships, we must recognize that power and politics enter into every organizational decision. Positive power. However, concern about power and politics does not mean that a person is committed to such Machiavellian tactics as â€Å"doing unto others before they do unto you. † Power has a positive side as well. Organizations could not function without some kind of power relationships. The positive side is characterized by a concern for group goals and their achievement. Leaders enjoy the greatest overall influence when they help their followers feel powerful and accomplish greatness on their own. The direction of communications, their frequency, and their content reveals a great deal about the power relationships within an organization. It is as simple as who talks to whom about what. Office politics. The process by which power is exercised and sometimes acquired is called politics. In politics, contesting forces compete for favorable outcomes on decisions involving who gets what and how. Political activity is usually stronger where there are no prescribed routine answers or no stated policy. It also centers around the interpretation of existing policies and those situations involving value judgments. Any organization that attempts to totally reduce these arenas of political activity by instituting rules, regulations, and policies from the top would quickly strangle in its own red tape. Political processes form the dynamic that enables the formal organization to function. In a sense, power and politics act as the lubricant that enables the interdependent parts of the organization to operate smoothly together. When we pretend that power and politics don’t exist, we greatly reduce the ability of an organization to get things done, especially when innovation and change are involved, because they abandon procedures we have always followed. Since power and political processes are a fact of life in all organizations, we must develop and use the appropriate skills to achieve the organization’s goals. Managers must avoid working in isolation and instead as part of the flow of social forces. They must understand that a managerial position is not self-perpetuating. References Don’t confuse authority, power, and politics, By Ted Gautschi, Consultant, Wellesley Hills, MA — Design News, May 4, 1997 How to cite Authority Power Politics, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

My First Day at University free essay sample

I approached to one girl and asked for the classroom. It’s so lucky when I knew that we were in the same group, so I felt less nervous. I introduced myself and she also did it, her name is tip. We came in the classroom when the time to start classes began. All our classmates were quiet, nobody talked at all. The teacher arrived early. She started the class and after that we introduced ourselves. There were many people that came from different areas of over country, they were friendly and interested. tip and I sat closely and talked very much. After that, we spent the rest of the day together until we had to go home. We felt that we have many things in common with each other. Day by day, we have been best friends at university and usually helped each other in studies and also in life. We will write a custom essay sample on My First Day at University or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page At last ,days ago It was a Saturday when I first saw her. Her brown caramel eyes made my heart skip a beat for I had never seen anything so breathtaking. Her skin was a russet color and her hair was a shady black. That first moment when we saw each other is engraved in my head. I can still hear my heart throbbing loudly in my chest as her eyes landed on me in that small room. We stared at each other as she made her way to the seat in front of me and a smile flicked on her lips to seal that moment. It took a year for me to talk to her; we became best friends but nothing more, nothing that I wanted. Her life was mine, her thoughts were mine, she was my world and she didnt even know. Everyone said that we had something between us, she always laughed because she never notice how I shatter every time she notice someone else, but what really destroyed me was the day she broke the news that she was leaving and maybe never coming back. I am always going to remember that day because I had the opportunity to meet more people ,especially made friend with tip. Finally, I think it is natural that on the first day we feel nervous, but this always have a happy ending. thats why I believe my first day in the university was very good. My love for her is like the waves in the sea, it comes and it goes and She made me cry but she also made me laugh. But she never come back to me forever.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The lost art of typography essays

The lost art of typography essays Neil Postman's Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business was published in 1985. The theories and concepts described in the book could easily apply to today's world. Postman goes to great detail in his book about the development of public discourse (verbal and written communication) over the centuries. He explains how the development and evolution of communication over mankind's history has changed at critical points. These critical points include the development of the alphabet, the development of the printing press, the development of the telegraph and the development of the television. Postman argues that American society in particular is in danger since it relies so much on television. Postman's book is divided into two parts. Part one documents the development of communication in Western civilization. The main course of his documentation is that the oral and printed methods of communication tend to be held in higher prestige because they take more "brain power" to learn and perfect. If a person wants to learn in an oral or printed communication based culture, he or she must learn the language, memorize customs, learn to read, learn to write, etc. Postman even goes so far to say that print communication controls your physical body as well that a person's body must remain at least semi-mobile in order to pay attention to what the words are trying to say. In chapter 4, Postman details how the development and success of the printed word in Western civilization created what he calls "The Typographic Mind", a mind set where a person from the 17th, 18th or 19th centuries could endure and pay attention to lengthy written tomes or lengthy speeches. Postman cites the 1858 U.S. presidential debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas. One debate lasted three hours while another in 1854 went seven. When I read this, I admit I was amazed. I had known that the debates were important for many reasons,...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Quotations and Block Quotes in Chicago Referencing

Quotations and Block Quotes in Chicago Referencing Quotations and Block Quotes in Chicago Referencing When writing an academic paper, you may need to quote something you’ve read somewhere. But how to do this depends on the referencing system being used, so it pays to do some research. In this blogpost, we’re looking at how quotations work in Chicago referencing. Quoting vs. Paraphrasing When citing a source, you can either use a direct quotation or paraphrase what you’ve read. Direct quotation involves using the exact words written in the source you’re citing. To do this, you should place the quoted text inside double quotation marks (i.e., â€Å" †). It’s a good idea to quote a source directly if your argument depends on the exact wording of what you’re quoting. Air quotes are a bit different.(Source: Rob Cottingham/YouTube) If you don’t want to quote a source directly, you can paraphrase it instead. This means explaining what you’ve read in your own words. However, you still need to cite a source when paraphrasing, and you should be careful not to accidentally copy the original author’s wording. Footnotes or In-Text Citations? Since Chicago referencing offers two ways of citing sources, the exact rules will depend on which version you use. With the footnote and bibliography system, you should indicate citations using superscript numbers (e.g. 1, 2, 3) after the quoted text: Mitchell investigates â€Å"possible causal pathways connecting genetic replicators and social behaviors.†1 The first time you cite a source, you then need to give full bibliographic information in the accompanying footnote (including page numbers for the section quoted). With the author-date version of Chicago referencing, sources are cited in the main text of your paper. When quoting, this means giving the author’s surname, year of publication, and relevant page numbers in parentheses after the quotation: It is important to investigate â€Å"possible causal pathways connecting genetic replicators and social behaviors† (Mitchell 1996, 132). If the author is named in the text, however, the citation is given after their name: Mitchell (1996, 132) investigates â€Å"possible causal pathways connecting genetic replicators and social behaviors.† Full bibliographic information of all cited sources is then given in the reference list. Long Quotations The other key fact to remember is that longer quotations are formatted differently in Chicago referencing. These are known as â€Å"block quotes† and should be: Prose quotations of five or more lines Not enclosed in quotation marks Preceded and followed by a blank line Indented .5† from the left margin The rules for citing a block quote are the same as when quoting a source elsewhere in your text. As such, a Chicago-style block quote using footnote citations would look something like this: Discussing genetics and behavior, Mitchell writes that: In order to evaluate the legitimacy of such explanations it is, thus, necessary to explicate the variety of possible causal pathways connecting genetic replicators and social behaviors. If phenotypic variation is the direct object of natural selection, one must understand the underlying relationship between the phenotypic expression and genetic replicators to argue that any such phenotypic trait is, or can be, an adaptation.1 This suggests that the relationship between genetics and behavior in animals is†¦ The full citation for the source would then be given in a footnote at the bottom of the page.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Science ommunication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Science ommunication - Essay Example Science communication programmes and activities have a very important role to play for developing a scientifically informed and attitudinally rational society. Sustained science communication efforts play a key role in enhancing level of public understanding of science and thus empowering them with useful knowledge. This can be done by way of interpretation of scientific knowledge and scientific concepts to the public through different mass media - print, broadcast, folk, interactive or digital. One such initiative on the web is http://whyfiles.org. The message may comprise of written words, spoken words, body language signs, icons or symbols. Sometimes, Noise may get embedded with the message, if the channel is not robust and reliable. A noisy message in turn may not communicate the intended thoughts to the receiver. Therefore great emphasis is laid on the medium as well, as Marshall McLuhan's famous saying goes, 'the medium is the message'. The mission statement of 'why files' says: "The mission of The Why Files is to explore the science, math and technology behind the news of the day, and to present those topics in a clear, accessible and accurate manner. We are based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, but The Why Files covers science at all institutions that engage in scientific exploration and discovery."1 Strengths: Founded in 1996 as part of the National Institute for Science Education with funding from the National Science Foundation, the Why Files has been supported through the Graduate School of the University of Wisconsin-Madison since 1998. The support, financial as well logistical is the prerequisite for sustenance of any science related venture, because science in general is not a blue eyed boy of business community and we must not expect open hearted patronage from this sector. Whatever comes is